问题库

欠条有效期是两年还是一年

亲子有料
2021/7/21 23:08:20
欠条有效期是两年还是一年
最佳答案:

借条的有效期分两种情况:

1、只有借款时间,并未约定还款时间的,债权人即可以在两年诉讼时效到期之前,也可以在认为债务人经济状况恶化,无力偿还欠款时随时向人民法院提起诉讼;

2、借条上明确约定还款时间时,则诉讼时效的计算自约定的还款时间起两年内。

一般来说,借条与欠条均可用来作为某种债权债务关系的证明或凭证,现实生活中人们极易将两者混淆使用,实际上,两者有很大区别。借条代表的是借款合同关系,借款人向出借人借款,出借人给付借款。借条本身并非借款合同,一般只是书面或口头借款合同的证明和凭证。而欠条通常是由于债务人出具欠条前,双方已有经济往来(尤以买卖合同居多),债务人应当向债权人支付款项,但基于各种原因,在债务人不能及时还款情况下,双方达成合意和妥协,由债务人出具欠条,日后归还。欠条是对以往双方经济往来的一种结算,表明自欠条形成之日起双方之间形成的一种新的纯粹的债权债务关系。欠条的形成以以往的经济往来为基础,但其本身并不能代表以往的合同关系。 对于注明了还款期限的借条和欠条,应该从双方约定的还款期限届满时起计算诉讼时效。按照《民法通则》的规定,诉讼时效期间从知道或者应当知道权利被侵害时起计算。如果届至借条或欠条注明的还款日期债务人仍不履行债务,则债权人可以以此作为临界点,计算诉讼时效期间。故此类借据和欠条的诉讼时效起算是一致的,均从其注明的还款期限之日起计算为两年(一般诉讼时效为两年),超过两年,债权人的债权将不再受到法律的保护,丧失在诉讼中的胜诉权。 没有注明还款期限或履行期限的借条和欠条,两者在诉讼时效的适用上则是有区别的: 1、借条:如果债权人未曾主张权利的就不能开始计算时效。因而其2年的普通诉讼时效从权利人主张权利而义务人拒绝履行义务之日起计算。债权人若一直没有主张权利则适用最长诉讼时效期间,从债权债务关系发生之日起计算20年,超过20年的,人民法院不予保护。 2、欠条:没有履行期限的欠条是对双方以往经济往来的一种结算,在债务人出具欠条时,权利人就已经知道自己的权利受到了侵害,故权利人应当在欠条出具之日起两年内向人民法院主张权利,也就是说,没有履行期限的欠条从出具之日起计算诉讼时效。

俏妈厨房

2021/7/26 16:23:22

我来回答

匿名 提交回答
其他回答(1个)

1个回答

  • 极点无为

    2021/7/28 0:25:53

    Interim Measures on Information Disclosure of Commercial Banks

    Order No.6 of the People's Bank of China

    May 15, 2002

    Chapter I General Provisions

    Article 1 These rules are formulated on the basis of "Law on the People's bank of China of the People's Republic of China" and "Commercial Banking Law of the People's Bank of China", which aim to strengthen market discipline of commercial banks, standardize information disclosure of commercial banks, effectively safeguard legitimate interests of depositors and other stakeholders and promote safe, sound and efficient operation of commercial banks.

    Article 2 These rules are to be applied to commercial banks that are established legally within the territory of the People's Republic of China, including domestic commercial banks, wholly foreign funded banks, joint venture banks and branches of foreign banks.

    Article 3 Commercial banks should disclose information according to these rules, which are the minimum requirements for commercial banks' information disclosure. While abiding by these rules, commercial banks can disclose more information than what has been required by these rules at their own discretion.

    In addition to these rules, listed commercial banks should also conform to relevant information disclosure rules published by regulatory body of the securities industry.

    Article 4 Information disclosure of commercial banks should be proceeded consistent with laws and regulations, the uniform domestic accounting rules and relevant rules of the PBC.

    Article 5 Commercial banks should disclose information in a standardized fashion, while ensuring authenticity, accuracy, integrity and comparability.

    Article 6 Annual financial statements disclosed by commercial banks should be subject to auditing by accounting firms that are certified to be engaged in finance-related auditing.

    Article 7 The People's Bank of China is to supervise commercial banks' information disclosure according to relevant laws and regulations.

    Chapter II Information to be Disclosed

    Article 8 Commercial banks should disclose financial statements, and information on risk management, corporate governance and big events of the year according to these rules.

    Article 9 Commercial banks' financial statements should include accounting report, annex and notes to this report and description of financial position.

    Article 10 Accounting report disclosed by commercial banks should include balance sheet, statement of income (profit and loss account), statement of owner's equity and other additional charts.

    Article 11 Commercial banks should indicate inconsistence between the basis of preparation and the basic preconditions of accounting in their notes to the accounting report.

    Article 12 Commercial banks should explain in their notes to the accounting report the important policy of accounting and accounting estimates, including: Accounting standards, accounting year, reporting currency, accounting basis and valuation principles; Type and scope of loans; Accounting rules for investment; Scope and method of provisions against asset losses; Principle and method of income recognition; Valuation method for financial derivatives; Conversion method for foreign currency business and accounting report; Preparation method for consolidated accounting report; Valuation and depreciation method for fixed assets; Valuation method and amortization policy for intangible assets; Amortization policy for long-term deferred expenses; Accounting practice for income tax.

    Article 13 Commercial banks should indicate in their notes to the accounting report crucial changes of accounting policy and estimates, contingent items and post-balance sheet items, transfer and sale of important assets.

    Article 14 Commercial banks should indicate in their annex and notes to the accounting report the total volume of related party transactions and major related party transactions. Major related party transactions refer to those with trading volume exceeding 30 million yuan or 1% of total net assets of the commercial bank.

    Article 15 Commercial banks should indicate in their notes to the accounting report detailed breakdown of key categories in the accounting report, including:

    (1) Due from banks by the breakdown of domestic and overseas markets.

    (2) Interbank lending by the breakdown of domestic and overseas markets.

    (3) Outstanding balance of loans at the beginning and the end of the accounting year by the breakdown of credibility loans, committed loans, collateralized loans and pledged loans.

    (4) Non-performing loans at the beginning and end of the accounting year resulted from the risk-based loan classification.

    (5) Provisions for loan losses at the beginning and the end of the accounting year, new provisions, returned provisions and write-offs in the accounting year. General provisions, specific provisions and special provisions should be disclosed separately.

    (6) Outstanding balance and changes of interest receivables.

    (7) Investment at the beginning and the end of the accounting year by instruments.

    (8) Interbank borrowing in domestic and overseas markets.

    (9) Calculation, outstanding balance and changes of interest payables.

    (10) Year-end outstanding balance and other details of off-balance sheet categories, including bank acceptance bills, external guarantees, letters of guarantee for financing purposes, letters of guarantee for non-financing purposes, loan commitments, letters of credit (spot), letters of credit (forward), financial futures, financial options, etc.

    (11) Other key categories.

    Article 16 Commercial banks should disclose in their notes to the accounting report status of capital adequacy, including total value of risk assets, amount and structure of net capital, core capital adequacy ratio and capital adequacy ratio.

    Article 17 Commercial banks should disclose auditing report provided by the appointed accounting firms.

    Article 18 Description of financial position should cover the general performance of the bank, generation and distribution of profit and other events that have substantial impact on financial position and performance of the bank.

    Article 19 Commercial banks should disclose following risks and risk management details:

    (1) Credit risk. Commercial banks should disclose status of credit risk management, credit exposure, credit quality and earnings, including business operations that generate credit risks, policy of credit risk management and control, organizational structure and division of labor in credit risk management, procedure and methods of classification of asset risks, distribution and concentration of credit risks, maturity analysis of over-due loans, restructuring of loans and return of assets.

    (2) Liquidity risk. Commercial banks should disclose relevant parameters that can represent their status of liquidity, analyze factors affecting liquidity and indicate their strategy of liquidity management.

    (3) Market risk. Commercial banks should disclose risks brought by changes of interest rates and exchange rate on the market, analyzing impacts of such changes on profitability and financial positions of the bank and indicating their strategy of market risk management.

    (4) Operation risk. Commercial banks should disclose risks brought by flaws and mistakes of internal procedures, staff and system or by external shocks and indicate the integrity, rationality and effectiveness of their internal control mechanism.

    (5) Other risks. Other risks that may bring severe negative impact to the bank.

    Article 20 Commercial banks should disclose following information on corporate governance:

    (1) Shareholders' meeting during the year.

    (2) Members of the board of directors and its work performance.

    (3) Members of the board of supervisors and its work performance.

    (4) Members of the senior management and their profiles.

    (5) Layout of branches and function departments.

    Article 21 Chronicle of events disclosed by commercial banks in the year should at least include the following contents:

    (1) Names of the ten biggest shareholders and changes during the year.

    (2) Increase or decrease of registered capital, splitting up and merger.

    (3) Other important information that is necessary for the general public to know.

    Article 22 Information of foreign bank branches is to be collected and disclosed by the primary reporting branch.

    Foreign bank branches don't need to disclose information that is only mandated and required for disclosure by institutions with legal person status.

    Foreign bank branches should translate into Chinese and disclose the summary of information disclosed by their head offices.

    Article 23 Commercial banks need not disclose information of unimportant categories. However, if the omission or misreporting of certain categories or information may change or affect the assessment or judge of the information users, commercial banks should regarded the categories as key information categories and disclose them.

    Chapter III Management of Information Disclosure

    Article 24 Commercial banks should prepare in Chinese their annual reports with all the information to be disclosed and publish them within 4 month after the end of each accounting year. If they are not able to disclose such information on time due to special factors, they should apply to the People's Bank of China for delay of disclosure at least 15 days in advance.

    Article 25 Commercial banks should submit their annual reports to the People's Bank of China prior to disclosure.

    Article 26 Commercial banks should make sure that their shareholders and stakeholders could obtain the annual reports on a timely basis.

    Commercial banks should put their annual reports in their major operation venue, so as to ensure such reports are readily available for the general public to read and check. The PBC encourage commercial banks to disclose main contents of their annual reports to the public through media.

    Article 27 Boards of directors in commercial banks are responsible for the information disclosure. If there is no board of directors in the bank, the president (head) of the bank should assume such a responsibility.

    Boards of directors and presidents (heads) of commercial banks should ensure the authenticity, accuracy and integrity of the disclosed information and take legal responsibility for their commitments.

    Article 28 Commercial banks and their involved staff that provide financial statements with false information or concealing important facts should be punished according to the " Rules on Punishment of Financial Irregularities".

    Accounting firms and involved staff that provide false auditing report should be punished according to the "Interim Measures on Finance-related Auditing Business by Accounting Firms".

    Chapter IV Supplementary Provisions

    Article 29 Commercial banks with total assets below RMB 1 billion or with total deposits below RMB 500 million are exempted from the compulsory information disclosure. However, the People's Bank of China encourages such commercial banks to disclose information according to these rules.

    Article 30 The People's Bank of China is responsible for the interpretation of these rules.

    Article 31 These rules shall enter into force as of the date of promulgation and are to be applied to all commercial banks except city commercial banks.

    City commercial banks should adopt these rules gradually from January 1, 2003 to January 1, 2006.

    中国人民银行令[2002]第6号

    2002年5月15日

    第一章 总 则

    第一条 为加强商业银行的市场约束,规范商业银行的信息披露行为,有效维护存款人和相关利益人的合法权益,促进商业银行安全、稳健、高效运行,依据《中华人民共和国中国人民银行法》、《中华人民共和国商业银行法》等法律法规,制定本办法。

    第二条 本办法适用于在中华人民共和国境内依法设立的商业银行,包括中资商业银行、外资独资银行、中外合资银行、外国银行分行。

    第三条 商业银行应按照本办法规定披露信息。本办法规定为商业银行信息披露的最低要求。商业银行可在遵守本办法规定基础上自行决定披露更多信息。

    上市商业银行除应遵守本办法规定披露信息外,还应遵守证券监督管理机关有关信息披露的规定。

    第四条 商业银行披露信息应当遵守法律法规、国家统一的会计制度和中国人民银行的有关规定。

    第五条 商业银行应遵循真实性、准确性、完整性和可比性的原则,规范地披露信息。

    第六条 商业银行披露的年度财务会计报告须经获准从事金融相关审计业务的会计师事务所审计。

    第七条 中国人民银行根据有关法律法规对商业银行的信息披露进行监督。

    第二章 信息披露的内容

    第八条 商业银行应按照本办法规定披露财务会计报告、各类风险管理状况、公司治理、年度重大事项等信息。

    第九条 商业银行财务会计报告由会计报表、会计报表附注和财务情况说明书组成。

    第十条 商业银行披露的会计报表应包括资产负债表、利润表(损益表)、所有者权益变动表及其他有关附表。

    第十一条 商业银行应在会计报表附注中说明会计报表编制基础不符合会计核算基本前提的情况。

    第十二条 商业银行应在会计报表附注中说明本行的重要会计政策和会计估计,包括:会计报表编制所依据的会计准则、会计年度、记账本位币、记账基础和计价原则;贷款的种类和范围;投资核算方法;计提各项资产减值准备的范围和方法;收入确认原则和方法;衍生金融工具的计价方法;外币业务和报表折算方法;合并会计报表的编制方法;固定资产计价和折旧方法;无形资产计价及摊销政策;长期待摊费用的摊销政策;所得税的会计处理方法等。

    第十三条 商业银行应在会计报表附注中说明重要会计政策和会计估计的变更;或有事项和资产负债表日后事项;重要资产转让及其出售。

    第十四条 商业银行应在会计报表附注中披露关联方交易的总量及重大关联方交易的情况。

    重大关联方交易是指交易金额在3000万元以上或占商业银行净资产总额1%以上的关联方交易。

    第十五条 商业银行应在会计报表附注中说明会计报表中重要项目的明细资料,包括:

    (一) 按存放境内、境外同业披露存放同业款项;

    (二) 按拆放境内、境外同业披露拆放同业款项;

    (三) 按信用贷款、保证贷款、抵押贷款、质押贷款分别披露贷款的期初数、期末数;

    (四) 按贷款风险分类的结果披露不良贷款的期初数、期末数;

    (五) 贷款损失准备的期初数、本期计提数、本期转回数、本期核销数、期末数;一般准备、专项准备和特种准备应分别披露;

    (六) 应收利息余额及变动情况;

    (七) 按种类披露投资的期初数、期末数;

    (八) 按境内、境外同业披露同业拆入款项;

    (九) 应付利息计提方法、余额及变动情况;

    (十) 银行承兑汇票、对外担保、融资保函、非融资保函、贷款承诺、开出即期信用证、开出远期信用证、金融期货、金融期权等表外项目,包括上述项目的年末余额及其他具体情况;

    (十一) 其他重要项目。

    第十六条 商业银行应在会计报表附注中披露资本充足状况,包括风险资产总额、资本净额的数量和结构、核心资本充足率、资本充足率。

    第十七条 商业银行应披露会计师事务所出具的审计报告。

    第十八条 财务情况说明书应当对本行经营的基本情况、利润实现和分配情况以及对本行财务状况、经营成果有重大影响的其他事项进行说明。

    第十九条 商业银行应披露下列各类风险和风险管理情况:

    (一) 信用风险状况。商业银行应披露信用风险管理、信用风险暴露、信贷质量和收益的情况,包括产生信用风险的业务活动、信用风险管理和控制政策、信用风险管理的组织结构和职责划分、资产风险分类的程序和方法、信用风险分布情况、信用风险集中程度、逾期贷款的账龄分析、贷款重组、资产收益率等情况。

    (二) 流动性风险状况。商业银行应披露能反映其流动性状况的有关指标,分析影响流动性的因素,说明本行流动性管理策略。

    (三) 市场风险状况。商业银行应披露因市场汇率、利率变动而产生的风险,分析汇率、利率的变化对银行盈利能力和财务状况的影响,说明本行的市场风险管理策略。

    (四) 操作风险状况。商业银行应披露由于内部程序、人员、系统的不完善或失误,或外部事件造成的风险,并对本行内部控制制度的完整性、合理性和有效性作出说明。

    (五) 其他风险状况。其他可能对本行造成严重不利影响的风险因素。

    第二十条 商业银行应披露下列公司治理信息:

    (一) 年度内召开股东大会情况;

    (二) 董事会的构成及其工作情况;

    (三) 监事会的构成及其工作情况;

    (四) 高级管理层成员构成及其基本情况;

    (五) 银行部门与分支机构设置情况。

    第二十一条 商业银行披露的本行年度重要事项,至少应包括下列内容:

    (一) 最大十名股东名称及报告期内变动情况;

    (二) 增加或减少注册资本、分立合并事项;

    (三) 其他有必要让公众了解的重要信息。

    第二十二条 外国银行分行的信息由主报告行汇总后披露。

    外国银行分行无须披露本办法规定的仅适用于法人机构的信息。

    外国银行分行应将其总行所披露信息摘要译成中文后披露。

    第二十三条 商业银行无须披露非关键性项目。但若遗漏或误报某个项目或信息会改变或影响信息使用者的评估或判断时,商业银行应将该项目视为关键性项目予以披露。

    第三章 信息披露的管理

    第二十四条 商业银行应将信息披露的内容以中文编制成年度报告,于每个会计年度终了后的四个月内披露。因特殊原因不能按时披露的,应至少提前十五日向中国人民银行申请延迟。

    第二十五条 商业银行应将年度报告在公布前报送中国人民银行。

    第二十六条 商业银行应确保股东及相关利益人能及时获取年度报告。

    商业银行应将年度报告置放在商业银行的主要营业场所,确保公众能方便、及时地查阅。中国人民银行鼓励商业银行通过媒体向公众披露年度报告的主要信息。

    第二十七条 商业银行董事会负责本行的信息披露。未设立董事会的,由行长(单位主要负责人)负责。

    商业银行的董事会、行长(单位主要负责人)应当保证所披露的信息真实、准确、完整,并就其保证承担相应的法律责任。

    第二十八条 对在信息披露中提供虚假的或者隐瞒重要事实的财务会计报告的商业银行及有关责任人员,按照《金融违法行为处罚办法》予以处理。

    对出具虚假审计报告的会计师事务所及有关责任人员,按照《会计师事务所从事金融相关审计业务暂行办法》予以处理。

    第四章 附 则

    第二十九条 资产总额低于10亿元人民币或存款余额低于5亿元人民币的商业银行,可免于披露信息。中国人民银行鼓励此类商业银行按照本办法规定披露信息。

    第三十条 本办法由中国人民银行负责解释。

    第三十一条 本办法自公布之日起在除城市商业银行以外的商业银行范围内施行。

    城市商业银行自2003年1月1日起到2006年1月1日分步施行本办法。

    只有一篇

相关问题